All about Malaria symptoms
| According to World Malaria report 2017
- In 2016, an estimated 216 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide compared with 237 million cases in 2010 and 211 million cases in 2015.
- 90% malaria cases found in the African region, followed by 7% in south-east Asia region in 2016.
- 445000 deaths estimated from malaria globally in 2016 compared to 446 000 estimated deaths in 2015.
- Outside the African region, India and Indonesia accounted for 80% and 16% of the reported cases, and 60% and 30% of malaria deaths in 2016, respectively.
Malaria strains found in Asia region:
- P. Falciparum
- P. Vivax
| What is malaria?
Carrier of malaria disease is mosquito specifically anopheles mosquito. Malaria is also known as Anopheles mosquito disease. It’s typically transmitted through the malaria mosquito bite. Malaria is a life-threatening disease. Infected Anopheles mosquito female carries the Plasmodium parasite.
When this Anopheles mosquito female bites you, the parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood cells in the liver where plasmodium mature. For multiplication, the parasite infects red blood cells than multiply himself inside the cell, causing the infected cells to burst open, this process takes 48 to72 hours and body start showing Malaria symptoms.
The parasites continue to infect red blood cells, resulting in Malaria symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches.
| What causes Malaria?
Malaria is typically spread by Anopheles mosquito female infected with Plasmodium parasite.
There are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans:
- Plasmodium vivax
- P. Ovale
- P. Malaria
- P. Falciparum
P. Falciparumcauses is the more severe form of the disease in terms of life-threatening. In a different study, P. Vivax found to develop resistance against anti-malarial drugs in India.
Other modes of transmission of malaria known as congenital malaria which can pass to the baby at the time of birth through mother. Malaria symptoms in an infant could be similar. It can also be transmitted through an organ transplant, a transfusion, use of shared needles or syringes.
| Complete list of Malaria symptoms:
Malaria can be severe or uncomplicated stage because the Malaria symptoms typically develop within 10 days to four weeks after infection. In severe cases, it can be life threaten. In some cases, symptoms may not develop for several months.
Common Malaria symptoms in uncomplicated condition:
- A sensation of cold with shivering.
- Fever, headaches, and vomiting.
- Seizures sometimes occur in younger people with the disease.
- Sweats, followed by a return to normal temperature, with tiredness.
Severe Malaria symptoms:
- Vital organ dysfunction signs are the symptoms of severe malaria include:
- Profuse sweating
- Impaired consciousness
- Prostration, or adopting a prone position
- Multiple convulsions
- Deep breathing and respiratory distress
- Bloody stools
- Clinical jaundice and evidence of vital organ dysfunction
Severe malaria can be fatal without treatment.
| Diagnosis of Malaria – Antimalarial medication
The symptoms of malaria can mimic many other diseases, including influenza or a viral syndrome that’s why through symptoms diagnosis of malaria is not accurately possible. Your doctor will be able to diagnose malaria. A physical exam will also be performed.
There are two techniques of diagnosis of malaria:
- Microscopic examination: The definite diagnosis is made by looking at the blood of an infected patient under the microscope (blood smear) and identifying the presence of the parasite. This is the most widely performed and accepted test.
- By diagnostic kit: Rapid diagnostic tests (antigen tests) are available that can give the diagnosis in a few minutes. It is recommended that a positive test is followed with a blood smear examination.
| How Malaria is treated?
Malaria can be treated by your primary care doctor and by infectious-disease specialists as well. Your doctor will prescribe antimalarial medication based on the type of parasite that you have. Don’t use any medication without doctor prescription.
| Prevention from Malaria:
The prevention of malaria includes several steps. There is no % effective antimalarial medication available to prevent malaria for the lifetime. And therefore the prevention of mosquito bites is of paramount importance.
Some tips for prevention from malaria :
- Sleeping under bed nets: these should cover all of the bed down to the floor. These nets are most effective if they are treated with an insecticide.
- Clothing: clothing that covers most of the exposed skin and shoes that are closed can reduce the risk of bites.
- Apply insect repellent to all exposed skin.
Statical Information about malaria in countries is published by Center for disease control and prevention Click here to read the full report Center for disease control and prevention – Malaria Report Report is in table format. This table used to evaluate the risk of malaria in the different areas of countries.
CDC’s Malaria Program PDF download